If you are trying to install SharePoint 2010 and you get the error message shown in the following image, you will need to redownload the installation file and try again.
I wasted an entire afternoon trying to figure out why I was getting the error above. I had installed all of the prereq's and my Server 2008 R2 was up-to-date. The executable would not even fully extract, so there was no error log or anything to help me troubleshoot. I hope this post saves someone some time.